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Chapter 10 Test Biology  Academic

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Each organism has a unique combination of characteristics encoded in molecules of
a.
protein.
c.
carbohydrates.
b.
enzymes.
d.
DNA.
 

 2. 

The primary function of DNA is to
a.
make proteins.
b.
store and transmit genetic information.
c.
control chemical processes within cells.
d.
prevent mutations.
 

 3. 

All of the following are true about the structure of DNA except
a.
short strands of DNA are contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell.
b.
every DNA nucleotide contains a sugar, a phosphate group, and a base.
c.
DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides joined by hydrogen bonds.
d.
the long strands of nucleotides are twisted into a double helix.
 

 4. 

Molecules of DNA are composed of long chains of
a.
amino acids.
c.
monosaccharides.
b.
fatty acids.
d.
nucleotides.
 

 5. 

Which of the following is not part of a molecule of DNA?
a.
deoxyribose
c.
phosphate
b.
nitrogenous base
d.
ribose
 

 6. 

A nucleotide consists of
a.
a sugar, a protein, and adenine.
b.
a sugar, an amino acid, and starch.
c.
a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
d.
a starch, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
 

 7. 

The part of the molecule for which deoxyribonucleic acid is named is the
a.
phosphate group.
b.
sugar.
c.
nitrogenous base.
d.
None of the above; DNA is not named after part of the molecule.
 

 8. 

mc008-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. The entire molecule shown in the diagram is called a(n)
a.
amino acid.
c.
polysaccharide.
b.
nucleotide.
d.
pyrimidine.
 

 9. 

Purines and pyrimidines are
a.
bases found in amino acids.
b.
molecules that can replace phosphate groups from defective DNA.
c.
names of specific types of DNA molecules.
d.
bases found in nucleotides.
 

 10. 

The scientists credited with establishing the structure of DNA are
a.
Avery and Chargaff.
c.
Mendel and Griffith.
b.
Hershey and Chase.
d.
Watson and Crick.
 

 11. 

X-ray diffraction photographs by Wilkins and Franklin suggested that
a.
DNA and RNA are the same molecules.
b.
DNA is composed of either purines or pyrimidines, but not both.
c.
DNA molecules are arranged as a tightly coiled helix.
d.
DNA and proteins have the same basic structure.
 

 12. 

Watson and Crick built models that demonstrated that
a.
DNA and RNA have the same structure.
b.
DNA is made of two chains in a double helix.
c.
guanine forms hydrogen bonds with adenine.
d.
thymine forms hydrogen bonds with cytosine.
 

 13. 

Chargaff’s rules, the base-pairing rules, state that in DNA
a.
the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine.
b.
the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine.
c.
the amount of guanine equals the amount of thymine.
d.
Both a and b
 

 14. 

The base-pairing rules state that the following are base pairs in DNA:
a.
adenine—thymine; uracil—cytosine.
b.
adenine—thymine; guanine—cytosine.
c.
adenine—guanine; thymine—cytosine.
d.
uracil—thymine; guanine—cytosine.
 

 15. 

ATTG : TAAC ::
a.
AAAT : TTTG
c.
GTCC : CAGG
b.
TCGG : AGAT
d.
CGAA : TGCG
 

 16. 

The addition of nucleotides to form a complementary strand of DNA
a.
is catalyzed by DNA polymerase.
b.
is accomplished only in the presence of tRNA.
c.
prevents separation of complementary strands of RNA.
d.
is the responsibility of the complementary DNA mutagens.
 

 17. 

Which of the following is not true about DNA replication?
a.
It must occur before a cell can divide.
b.
Two complementary strands are duplicated.
c.
The double strand unwinds while it is being duplicated.
d.
The process is catalyzed by enzymes called DNA mutagens.
 

 18. 

During DNA replication, a complementary strand of DNA is made for each original DNA strand. Thus, if a portion of the original strand is CCTAGCT, then the new strand will be
a.
TTGCATG.
c.
CCTAGCT.
b.
AAGTATC.
d.
GGATCGA.
 

 19. 

The enzymes responsible for adding nucleotides to the exposed DNA template bases are
a.
replicases.
c.
helicases.
b.
DNA polymerases.
d.
nucleotidases.
 

 20. 

The function of tRNA is to
a.
synthesize DNA.
b.
synthesize mRNA.
c.
form ribosomes.
d.
transfer amino acids to ribosomes.
 

 21. 

Which of the following types of RNA carries instructions for making proteins?
a.
mRNA
c.
tRNA
b.
rRNA
d.
All of the above
 

 22. 

RNA differs from DNA in that RNA
a.
is sometimes single-stranded.
b.
contains a different sugar molecule.
c.
contains the nitrogenous base uracil.
d.
All of the above
 

 23. 

Which of the following is not found in DNA?
a.
adenine
c.
uracil
b.
cytosine
d.
None of the above
 

 24. 

RNA is chemically similar to DNA except that its sugars have an additional oxygen atom, and the base thymine is replaced by a structurally similar base called
a.
uracil.
c.
cytosine.
b.
alanine.
d.
codon.
 

 25. 

In RNA molecules, adenine is complementary to
a.
cytosine.
c.
thymine.
b.
guanine.
d.
uracil.
 
 
mRNA: CUCAAGUGCUUC
Genetic Code:
nar001-1.jpg
 

 26. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following is the series of amino acids encoded by the piece of mRNA shown above?
a.
Ser—Tyr—Arg—Gly
b.
Val—Asp—Pro—His
c.
Leu—Lys—Cys—Phe
d.
Pro—Glu—Leu—Val
 

 27. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following would represent the strand of DNA from which the mRNA strand was made?
a.
CUCAAGUGCUUC
b.
GAGUUCACGAAG
c.
GAGTTCACGAAG
d.
AGACCTGTAGGA
 

 28. 

Refer to the illustration above. The anticodons for the codons in the mRNA in the diagram are
a.
GAG—UUC—ACG—AAG.
b.
GAG—TTC—ACG—AAG.
c.
CUC—GAA—CGU—CUU.
d.
CUU—CGU—GAA—CUC.
 

 29. 

During translation, a ribosome binds to
a.
DNA.
c.
protein.
b.
mRNA.
d.
a peptide bond.
 

 30. 

Suppose that you are given a polypeptide sequence containing the following sequence of amino acids: tyrosine, proline, aspartic acid, isoleucine, and cysteine. Use the portion of the genetic code given in the table below to determine the DNA sequence that codes for this polypeptide sequence.

mRNAAmino acid
UAU, UACtyrosine
CCU, CCC, CCA, CCGproline
GAU, GACaspartic acid
AUU, AUC, AUAisoleucine
UGU, UGCcysteine
a.
AUGGGUCUAUAUACG
b.
ATGGGTCTATATACG
c.
GCAAACTCGCGCGTA
d.
ATTGGGCTTTAAACA
 

 31. 

Each of the following is a type of RNA except
a.
carrier RNA.
c.
ribosomal RNA.
b.
messenger RNA.
d.
transfer RNA.
 

 32. 

In order for protein synthesis to occur, mRNA must migrate to the
a.
ribosomes.
c.
RNA polymerase.
b.
lac operon.
d.
heterochromatin.
 

 33. 

During transcription,
a.
proteins are synthesized.
c.
RNA is produced.
b.
DNA is replicated.
d.
translation occurs.
 

 34. 

Transcription proceeds when RNA polymerase
a.
attaches to a ribosome.
b.
binds to a promoter on a strand of DNA.
c.
binds to a strand of RNA.
d.
unwinds the DNA molecule.
 

 35. 

Transcription is the process by which genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to a(n)
a.
RNA molecule.
c.
uracil molecule.
b.
DNA molecule.
d.
transposon.
 

 36. 

Each nucleotide triplet in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid is called a(n)
a.
mutagen.
c.
anticodon.
b.
codon.
d.
exon.
 

 37. 

The human genome contains
a.
30,000 genes.
c.
23 chromosomes.
b.
3.2 billion base pairs.
d.
All of the above
 

 38. 

During translation, the amino acid detaches from the transfer RNA molecule and attaches to the end of a growing protein chain when
a.
the ribosomal RNA anticodon is paired up with the messenger RNA codon.
b.
the transfer RNA anticodon is paired up with the messenger RNA codon.
c.
a “stop” codon is encountered.
d.
the protein chain sends a signal through the nerve cells to the brain.
 

 39. 

An error in DNA replication can cause
a.
mutations.
c.
genetic variation.
b.
cancer.
d.
All of the above
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 40. 

Hershey and Chase concluded that ____________________ is the hereditary material in viruses.
 

 

 41. 

The name of the five-carbon sugar that makes up a part of the backbone of molecules of DNA is ____________________.
 

 

 42. 

Watson and Crick determined that DNA molecules have the shape of a double ____________________.
 

 

 43. 

Due to the strict pairing of nitrogenous base pairs in DNA molecules, the two strands are said to be ____________________ to each other.
 

 

 44. 

According to base-pairing rules for DNA, adenine pairs with ____________________ and guanine pairs with ____________________.
 

 

 45. 

The enzyme that is responsible for replicating molecules of DNA by attaching complementary bases in the correct sequence is _________________________.
 

 

 46. 

Enzymes called helicases are responsible for unwinding the DNA double helix by breaking the ____________________ bonds that hold the complementary strands together.
 

 

 47. 

The process by which DNA copies itself is called ____________________.
 

 

 48. 

The nitrogenous base that is found only in RNA is ____________________.
 

 

 49. 

The enzyme responsible for transcribing RNA is called _________________________.
 

 

 50. 

The form of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes is ____________________.
 

 

 51. 

A(n) ____________________ is a sequence of DNA at the beginning of a gene that signals RNA polymerase to begin transcription.
 

 

 52. 

Messenger RNA is produced during the process of ____________________.
 

 

 53. 

Of the 64 codons of mRNA, 61 code for ____________________, three are ____________________ signals, and one is a(n) ____________________ signal.
 

 

 54. 

Nucleotide sequences of tRNA that are complementary to codons on mRNA are called ____________________.
 

 

 55. 

A sequence of three nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of protein is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 56. 

The information contained in a molecule of messenger RNA is used to make protein during the process of ____________________.
 

 

 57. 

During translation, amino acids are brought to the ribosomes by molecules of ____________________.
 

 

Essay
 

 58. 

The DNA molecule is described as a double helix. Explain this expression and describe the general structure of a DNA molecule. Also describe the bonding in a DNA molecule. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 59. 

Describe how a molecule of DNA is replicated. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 60. 

Identify the three types of RNA and briefly describe the function of each. Write your answer in the space below.
 



 
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