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Classification Test  General & Inclusion

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The science of classifying living things is called
a.
identification.
c.
taxonomy.
b.
speciation.
 

 2. 

Taxonomy is defined as the science of
a.
studying ribosomal RNA sequencing techniques.
b.
studying reproductive mechanisms and gene flow.
c.
grouping organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history.
 

 3. 

As we move through the biological hierarchy from the kingdom to species level, organisms
a.
are less and less related to each other.
b.
always are members of the same order.
c.
become more similar in appearance.
 

 4. 

A mushroom is difficult to classify in Linnaeus’s two-kingdom classification system because
a.
it has another common name, the toadstool.
b.
it doesn’t seem to fit into either kingdom.
c.
mushrooms had not yet evolved in Linnaeus’s time.
d.
All of the above
 

 5. 

Which of the following was not a consideration for Carolus Linnaeus when he developed his system of nomenclature of organisms?
a.
It should enable scientists to classify organisms according to their presumed evolutionary relationships to other organisms.
b.
It should assign names using a language that can be recognized worldwide.
c.
It should include detailed descriptions of an organism in its name.
 

 6. 

Which of the following scientists developed the system of classifying organisms by assigning them a genus and species name?
a.
Linnaeus
c.
Darwin
b.
Leakey
 

 7. 

mc007-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. A shark’s skeleton is made of cartilage while a dolphin’s skeleton is made of bone. This is one reason the two organisms are placed in different
a.
kingdoms.
c.
domains.
b.
classes.
 

 8. 

The organism Quercus phellos is a member of the genus
a.
phellos.
c.
Quercus.
b.
Plantae.
 

 9. 

The red maple is also known as Acer rubrum. Its scientific name is
a.
rubrum.
c.
Acer rubrum.
b.
Acer.
 

 10. 

The scientific name of an organism
a.
varies according to the native language of scientists.
b.
may have more than one genus name.
c.
is the same for scientists all over the world.
 

 11. 

Scientists don’t use the common names of organisms because
a.
an organism may have more than one common name.
b.
common names are too ambiguous.
c.
an organism rarely has the same name in different languages.
d.
All of the above
 

 12. 

An organism can have
a.
one genus name and one species identifier.
b.
one genus name and two species identifiers.
c.
two genus names but only one species identifier.
 

 13. 

In which language are scientific names written?
a.
Arabic
c.
Latin
b.
Greek
 

 14. 

Two organisms in the same class but different orders
a.
are members of the same species.
b.
are in the same phylum.
c.
are in different kingdoms.
 

 15. 

Two organisms in the same order but different families may
a.
be more similar than two organisms in different classes.
b.
be in the same class.
c.
have the same species identifier.
d.
All of the above
 

 16. 

Kingdoms are divided into phyla, and each phylum is divided into
a.
families.
c.
classes.
b.
orders.
 

 17. 

The correct order of the biological hierarchy from kingdom to species is
a.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
b.
kingdom, phylum, order, family, class, genus, species.
c.
kingdom, class, family, order, phylum, genus, species.
 

 18. 

The lowest hierarchy level in biological classification is the
a.
order.
c.
family.
b.
species.
 

 19. 

Which of the following is the least inclusive classification group?
a.
phylum
c.
species
b.
class
 

 20. 

Quercus rubra : Quercus phellos ::
a.
Aphis pomi : Aphis gossypii
b.
Anolis carolinensis : Parus carolinensis
c.
carp : goldfish
 

 21. 

class : family ::
a.
species : genus
c.
phylum : order
b.
genus : class
 

 22. 

Today, biologists classify organisms by their
a.
physical similarities.
c.
behavioral similarities.
b.
chemical similarities.
d.
All of the above
 

 23. 

The DNA sequences of two species of sharks would
a.
be more similar than the DNA sequences of a shark and a dolphin.
b.
show no discernible differences.
c.
be very close to the DNA sequences of a dolphin.
 

 24. 

Which of the following is (are) used in systematic taxonomy to classify organisms?
a.
patterns of embryological development
b.
homologous features
c.
amino acid sequences of proteins
d.
All of the above
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 25. 

Refer to the illustration above. A branching diagram like the one shown is called a
a.
cladogram.
c.
phenetic tree.
b.
family tree.
 

 26. 

Refer to the illustration above. Each particular feature, such as dry skin, that is used to assign an organism to a group is called a(n)
a.
special character.
b.
derived character.
c.
homologous character.
 

 27. 

Nearly all single-celled eukaryotes that are either heterotrophic or photosynthetic belong to the kingdom
a.
Protista.
c.
Fungi.
b.
Animalia.
 

 28. 

Most multicellular, nucleated autotrophs that carry on photosynthesis belong to the kingdom
a.
Eubacteria.
c.
Animalia.
b.
Plantae.
 

 29. 

Multicellular, nucleated heterotrophs that always obtain food by absorbing nutrients from the environment belong to the kingdom
a.
Fungi.
c.
Plantae.
b.
Animalia.
 

 30. 

An organism that breaks down organic matter, which it then absorbs, is in the kingdom
a.
Protista.
c.
Animalia.
b.
Fungi.
 

 31. 

Simple, non-nucleated organisms that use hydrogen to produce methane are in the domain
a.
Archaea.
c.
Eukarya.
b.
Bacteria.
d.
None of the above
 

 32. 

The kingdom defined as including any eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi is the kingdom
a.
Protista.
c.
Plantae.
b.
Animalia.
 

 33. 

Carl Woese proposed the three-domain system of classification based on the examination of
a.
organisms’ physical features.
c.
embryos.
b.
ribosomal RNA.
 

 34. 

The three domain system of classification is based on similarities and differences in ____, while the six-kingdom system is based on similarities and differences in ____.
a.
DNA; embryological development, fossils, physical features, and RNA
b.
DNA; DNA, fossils, embryological development, and physical features
c.
ribosomal RNA; embryological development, fossils, physical features, and various molecular structures
 

 35. 

Which of the following groups are placed together by cladistics but are placed in separate groups by classical taxonomy?
a.
birds and mammals
c.
turtles and birds
b.
birds and crocodiles
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 36. 

Aristotle classified plants on the basis of differences in their ____________________.
 

 

 37. 

The science of naming and classifying organisms is called ____________________.
 

 

 38. 

____________________ devised the two-name system of naming organisms.
 

 

 39. 

Biologists of Linnaeus’s time classified every living thing as either plant or ____________________.
 

 

 40. 

A genus is subdivided into smaller groups called ____________________.
 

 

 41. 

Each kind of organism on Earth is assigned a unique two-word ____________________.
 

 

 42. 

All scientific names are made up of two words that are often derived from the ____________________ language.
 

 

 43. 

The first word of a scientific name indicates the ____________________ to which the organism belongs.
 

 

 44. 

A kingdom is divided into phyla when animals are being classified or into ____________________ when plants are being classified.
 

 

 45. 

The evolutionary history of a species is called its ____________________.
 

 

 46. 

co046-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. Organism 4 belongs to the kingdom ____________________.
 

 

 47. 

Eukaryotic organisms that lack specialized tissue systems are members of the kingdom ____________________.
 

 

 48. 

Corals, spiders, and rodents all belong to the kingdom ____________________.
 

 

 49. 

The domains of the three-domain system of classification are Archaea, Bacteria, and ____________________.
 

 

 50. 

The variety of organisms at all taxonomic levels is called ____________________.
 

 

 51. 

Cladistics uses shared and ____________________ characters to group taxa.
 

 

 52. 

The Greek philosopher ____________________ classified organisms as either plants or animals.
 

 

Problem
 

 53. 

The following table presents data on some characteristics found in vertebrates. A “+” indicates that an organism has a particular characteristic and a “–” indicates that an organism does not have a particular characteristic.
 
Characteristics
Organism
Jaws
Limbs
Hair
Lungs
Tail
Lamprey
+
Turtle
+
+
+
+
Cat
+
+
+
+
+
Gorilla
+
+
+
+
+
Lungfish
+
+
+
Trout
+
+
Human
+
+
+
+

Using these data, construct a cladogram illustrating the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Each branch point should indicate a common ancestor. Write the name of the shared character that is common to all organisms above each branching point. A shared character can be the absence of a structure common to organisms below that point on the tree. Write your answer in the space below.
 

Essay
 

 54. 

Why might the use of common names to describe organisms sometimes cause confusion? Give several examples to support your answer. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 55. 

While on a biological expedition to a tropical rain forest, you discover a previously unidentified animal. Explain the guidelines you would follow to choose a genus and species name for the animal. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 56. 

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the dog (Canis familiaris) are all members of the family Canidae. The mountain lion (Felis concolor) is a member of the family Felidae. Describe the relationships among these animals. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 57. 

A species is defined as a group of organisms that are similar and can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature. Horses and donkeys can interbreed and produce mules, which cannot produce offspring. Is it possible that horses and donkeys belong to the same species? Explain. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 58. 

What are the main criteria currently used to classify organisms? Write your answer in the space below.
 



 
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