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Chapter 15 Test Gen Online

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following are examples of fossils?
a.
shells or old bones
b.
any traces of dead organisms
c.
insects trapped in tree sap
d.
All of the above
 

 2. 

Animal fossils may form when
a.
an animal is buried by sediment.
b.
an animal is buried on the ocean floor, in swamps, in mud, or in tar pits.
c.
an animal’s tissue is replaced by harder minerals.
d.
All of the above
 

 3. 

Darwin drew ideas for his theory from observations of organisms on
a.
the Samoan Islands.
b.
Manhattan Island.
c.
the Hawaiian Islands.
d.
the Galápagos Islands.
 

 4. 

The species of finches that Darwin observed differed in the shape of their beaks. According to Darwin, all of these species probably
a.
had a common ancestor.
b.
had migrated from Africa.
c.
had descended from similar birds in Africa.
d.
ate the same diet.
 

 5. 

The process by which a population becomes better suited to its environment is known as
a.
accommodation.
c.
adaptation.
b.
variation.
d.
acclimation.
 

 6. 

Natural selection is the process by which
a.
the age of selected fossils is calculated.
b.
organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited to the same environment.
c.
acquired traits are passed on from one generation to the next.
d.
All of the above
 

 7. 

Natural selection could not occur without
a.
genetic variation in species.
b.
stable environments.
c.
competition for unlimited resources.
d.
gradual warming of the Earth.
 

 8. 

Populations of the same species living in different places
a.
do not vary.
b.
always show balancing selection.
c.
are genetically identical to each other.
d.
become increasingly different as each population becomes adapted to its own environment.
 

 9. 

Scarcity of resources and a growing population are most likely to result in
a.
decreased homology.
b.
increased genetic variation.
c.
increased competition.
d.
convergent evolution.
 

 10. 

Since natural resources are limited, all organisms
a.
must migrate to new habitats.
b.
must compete for resources.
c.
display vestigial structures.
d.
have inherited characteristics.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 11. 

Refer to the illustration above. An analysis of DNA from these organisms would indicate that
a.
they have identical DNA.
b.
they all have the same number of bones.
c.
their nucleotide sequences show many similarities.
d.
they all have the same number of chromosomes.
 

 12. 

Refer to the illustration above. The similarity of these structures is one form of evidence that the organisms
a.
share a common ancestor.
b.
all grow at different rates.
c.
evolved instantaneously.
d.
live for a long time.
 

 13. 

Refer to the illustration above. The bones labeled “X” can be referred to as
a.
vestigial structures.
b.
sequential structures.
c.
homologous structures.
d.
fossil structures.
 

 14. 

Which of the following is most likely a vestigial structure?
a.
the human tailbone
c.
flower color
b.
the beak of a finch
d.
a fossil of a snail
 

 15. 

Homologous structures in organisms provide evidence that the organisms
a.
share a common ancestor.
b.
must have lived at different times.
c.
have a skeletal structure.
d.
are now extinct.
 

 16. 

Anatomical structures that appear to be derived from a functional structure in an ancestor, but that currently do not serve an important function, are called
a.
inorganic.
c.
fossilized.
b.
mutated.
d.
vestigial.
 

 17. 

The beak of a bird and the beak of a giant squid evolved independently and serve the same function. The beaks are
a.
divergent structures.
c.
analogous structures.
b.
homologous structures.
d.
hybrid structures.
 

 18. 

Evidence that evolution occurs includes all of the following except
a.
acquired characteristics.
b.
similarities and differences in proteins and DNA sequences between organisms.
c.
the fossil record.
d.
homologous structures among different organisms.
 

 19. 

Cytochrome c is a protein that is involved in cellular respiration in all eukaryotic organisms. Human cytochrome c contains 104 amino acids. The following table compares human cytochrome c with cytochrome c from a number of other organisms.


Organism
Number of cytochrome c amino acids
that differ from human cytochrome c amino acids
Chickens
18
Chimpanzees
0
Dogs
13
Rattlesnakes
20
Rhesus monkeys
1
Yeasts
56

Which of the following is not a valid inference from these data?
a.
Chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than yeasts are.
b.
The cytochrome c of chimpanzees differs from that of rhesus monkeys by only one amino acid.
c.
Dogs are more closely related to humans than chickens are.
d.
All of the proteins produced by chimpanzees and humans are identical.
 

 20. 

The accumulation of differences between populations that once formed a single population is called
a.
coevolution.
b.
adaptation.
c.
divergent evolution.
d.
cumulative differentiation.
 

 21. 

The process in which two or more species become more adapted over time to each other’s presence is called
a.
divergence.
c.
coevolution.
b.
radiation.
d.
competition.
 

 22. 

mc022-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. While the shark and dolphin are similar in appearance, dolphins evolved from ancestors that were very different from sharks. The current similarity between sharks and dolphins is an example of
a.
coevolution.
c.
convergent evolution.
b.
biogeography.
d.
divergent evolution.
 

 23. 

What is the idea developed by Charles Lyell which states that the geologic processes that shaped Earth in the past continue to operate in the same way today?
a.
inheritance of acquired characteristics
b.
catastrophism
c.
uniformitarianism
d.
descent with modification
 

 24. 

Artificial selection has been used by humans to
a.
speed up the process of divergent evolution.
b.
slow down the process of convergent evolution.
c.
stop evolution in domestic animals.
d.
study the process of coevolution.
 

 25. 

The idea of inheritance of acquitted characteristics was proposed by
a.
Charles Darwin.
c.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
b.
George Cuvier.
d.
Charles Lyell.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
Word Bank
a. phylogeny      b. similarities    c. evolution     d. extinct     e. natural selection
a. coevolution     b. homologous     c. environment   d. fossil
 

 26. 

Any preserved trace of an ancient life form is a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 27. 

A species that has disappeared permanently is said to be ____________________.
 

 

 28. 

A heritable change in a species over time is called ____________________.
 

 

 29. 

The process by which organisms with traits well suited to an environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited for that environment is called ____________________.
 

 

 30. 

According to Darwin, the ____________________ limits the rate at which organisms survive and reproduce.
 

 

 31. 

____________________ structures are similar because they originated in a common ancestor.
 

 

 32. 

Closely related species show more ____________________ in nucleotide sequences than distantly related species.
 

 

 33. 

____________________ occurs as two or more species change over time due to each other’s influence.
 

 

 34. 

Scientists today use fossil evidence, anatomical evidence, DNA, and other molecular evidence to model ____________________, the relationships by ancestry among groups of organisms.
 

 

Essay: Choose 2 and answer in complete sentences...
 

 35. 

Why did Darwin think that the finches he observed and collected in the Galápagos Islands shared a common ancestor? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 36. 

Suppose that you are a zoologist studying birds on a group of islands. You have just discovered four species of birds that have never before been seen. Each species is on a separate island. The birds are identical to each other except for the shape of their beaks. How can you explain their similarities and differences? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 37. 

Why is competition among individuals of the same species generally so intense? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 38. 

According to Darwin’s theory, what role does the environment play in natural selection? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 39. 

To control its wild rabbit population, the Australian government introduced the viral disease myxomatosis. At first the virus was very deadly to the rabbits, but over the years, the virus became less deadly. Explain what might have happened to the rabbit population and why the virus became less deadly. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 40. 

How does biogeography contribute to an understanding of evolution? Write your answer in the space below.
 



 
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