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Bacteria and Viruses Test:    Inclusion Version

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The earliest known group of living organisms on Earth was
a.
fungi.
c.
viruses.
b.
bacteria.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 2. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the organisms shown has the shape called bacillus?
a.
organism 1
c.
organism 3
b.
organism 2
d.
None of the above
 

 3. 

Refer to the illustration above. The shape represented by organism 3 is called
a.
filamentous.
c.
bacillus.
b.
spirillum.
 

 4. 

Bacteria lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles; therefore, they are classified as
a.
aerobes.
c.
anaerobes.
b.
prokaryotes.
 

 5. 

Which of the following comparisons is incorrect?

 PROKARYOTES      EUKARYOTES
a.
chloroplasts      mitochondria
b.
binary fission      mitosis
c.
smaller      larger
 

 6. 

One difference between human body cells and bacterial cells is that bacterial cells have
a.
no DNA.
b.
a cell wall made up of peptidoglycan.
c.
an outer cell wall made up of phosphates.
 

 7. 

Structures found in a eukaryotic cell but not in a bacterial cell are
a.
cell nuclei.
b.
multiple chromosomes.
c.
membrane-bound organelles.
d.
All of the above
 

 8. 

Bacterial cells
a.
have a cell wall only.
b.
have a cell wall inside their cell membrane.
c.
have both a cell membrane and cell wall.
 

 9. 

One thing that E. coli and other bacteria have in common with eukaryotes is the presence of
a.
DNA.
c.
nuclei.
b.
chloroplasts.
 

 10. 

Which of the following are used by at least some bacteria for movement?
a.
pili
b.
flagella
c.
cytoplasmic projections
d.
All of the above
 

 11. 

phototrophic bacteria : sunlight ::
a.
chemoautotrophic bacteria : inorganic molecules
b.
chemotrophic bacteria : dead organisms
c.
heterotrophic bacteria : inorganic molecules
 

 12. 

Which of the following conditions would be unsuitable for any kind of bacteria to grow?
a.
temperature of 110ºC (230ºF)
b.
absence of oxygen
c.
pH of 5
d.
None of the above
 

 13. 

A pathogen is an agent that is
a.
nearly extinct.
b.
harmful to living organisms.
c.
harmful only to plants.
 

 14. 

Which of the following foods is not a fermentation product of bacteria?
a.
a pickle
c.
milk
b.
yogurt
 

 15. 

Antibiotics
a.
include penicillin and tetracycline.
b.
may prevent bacteria from making new cell walls.
c.
can be effective treatments for bacterial diseases.
d.
All of the above
 

 16. 

Which of the following is not a way of preventing a foodborne illness at home?
a.
washing fresh fruits and vegetables before eating them
b.
keeping cooked and raw foods separate during storage
c.
washing kitchen utensils thoroughly in cold water
 

 17. 

Viruses are considered nonliving because
a.
they cannot reproduce by themselves.
b.
they are not made up of cells.
c.
they cannot carry out metabolism by themselves.
d.
All of the above
 

 18. 

The study of viruses is a part of biology because
a.
they are active inside living cells.
b.
they are about to become extinct.
c.
they belong to the kingdom Eubacteria.
 

 19. 

Biologists now know that viruses
a.
are the smallest organisms.
b.
consist of a protein surrounded by a nucleic acid coat.
c.
contain RNA or DNA in a protein or lipid-protein coat.
 

 20. 

The capsid of a virus is the
a.
cell wall and membrane complex.
b.
cell membrane.
c.
protective outer coat.
 

 21. 

Viruses are classified according to
a.
whether they contain RNA or DNA.
b.
the shape of their genome.
c.
whether they have a membrane envelope.
d.
All of the above
 

 22. 

All viruses have
a.
cytoplasm.
c.
mitochondria.
b.
ribosomes.
d.
None of the above
 

 23. 

Tobacco mosaic virus
a.
is able to be crystallized.
b.
causes disease in tobacco plants.
c.
is smaller than a bacterium.
d.
All of the above
 

 24. 

Scientists first began to study viruses because they
a.
were made of cells.
b.
could not be seen but caused disease.
c.
formed crystals.
 

 25. 

A typical virus consists of
a.
a polysaccharide coat and a nucleic acid core.
b.
a protein coat and a cytoplasm core.
c.
a protein coat and a nucleic acid core.
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 26. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure could possibly be made of RNA?
a.
structure 3
c.
structure 2
b.
structure 4
 

 27. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure is found outside the cell after the cell is infected?
a.
structure 3
c.
structure 2
b.
structure 1
 

 28. 

Viruses
a.
are cellular organisms.
b.
reproduce only in living cells.
c.
have nuclei and organelles.
 

 29. 

Animal viruses often infect only specific host cells because
a.
the host cell must have specific receptors for proteins on the virus surface.
b.
the enzymes of the virus can attach only to specific host cells.
c.
viruses have receptors for host cell glycoproteins.
 

 30. 

In which cell cycle(s) does viral DNA become integrated into the host cell’s DNA?
a.
neither lytic nor lysogenic
b.
lysogenic
c.
lytic
 

 31. 

Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections because
a.
viruses have enzymes that inactivate the antibiotics.
b.
antibiotics interfere with cellular processes that viruses do not perform.
c.
viral protein coats block the antibiotics from entering the virus.
 

 32. 

Which of the following is not a viral disease of humans?
a.
hepatitis
b.
SARS
c.
shingles
d.
All of the above are viral diseases of humans.
 

 33. 

Which of the following human activities is most closely associated with the emergence of viruses not previously seen in humans?
a.
clearing of forests for housing
b.
crowded living conditions
c.
eating uncooked meat
 

 34. 

HIV causes AIDS by
a.
destroying the covering of a person’s nerves.
b.
damaging a person’s blood vessels.
c.
gradually destroying a person’s immune system.
 

 35. 

Which of the following is not a vector (carrier) of viral diseases?
a.
prions
c.
ticks
b.
mosquitoes
 

 36. 

Which of the following has been the most successful at fighting viral diseases?
a.
vaccination
c.
drug therapy
b.
vector control
d.
Both a and b
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 37. 

A spiral bacterium is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 38. 

Spherical bacteria are called ____________________.
 

 

 39. 

Rod-shaped bacteria are called ____________________.
 

 

 40. 

The procedure used to distinguish between two types of bacterial cell wall composition is called ____________________.
 

 

 41. 

In general, organisms that obtain their energy from sunlight are called ____________________.
 

 

 42. 

Bacteria that get carbon from other organisms are called ____________________.
 

 

 43. 

A(n) ____________________ is a substance that can be obtained from bacteria or fungi and can be used as a drug to fight pathogenic bacteria.
 

 

 44. 

Many bacteria are ____________________ and must have oxygen to live, whereas other bacteria are ____________________ and cannot live where oxygen is present.
 

 

 45. 

Bacteria that can survive either with or without oxygen are called _________________________.
 

 

 46. 

____________________ are poisons that can cause disease when bacteria secrete them into their environment.
 

 

 47. 

The evolution of populations of pathogenic bacteria that antibiotics cannot kill is called _________________________.
 

 

 48. 

The protein coat of a virus is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 49. 

Viruses can vary in size and ____________________.
 

 

 50. 

____________________ are viruses that infect bacteria and have a polyhedral head and a helical tail.
 

 

 51. 

All viruses reproduce by taking over the reproductive machinery of a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 52. 

Viruses that infect a host cell and have their nucleic acid replicated but do not harm the host cell are in a(n) ____________________ cycle.
 

 

 53. 

Some viruses are thought to induce ____________________, a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell division.
 

 

 54. 

The Ebola virus, the SARS virus, and hantavirus are examples of ____________________ viruses.
 

 

 55. 

In the ____________________ cycle, viruses destroy the host cell.
 

 

 56. 

Chickenpox and ____________________ are caused by the same virus.
 

 

Essay (Choose 1 essay and complete the “Problem” question)
 

 57. 

Why are nitrogen-fixing bacteria important to Earth’s ecosystems? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 58. 

Suggest a reason why bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics are becoming common in hospitals. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 59. 

Explain why viruses are not considered to be living organisms, and why they are nonetheless included in the study of biology. Write your answer in the space below.
 

Problem (MUST BE COMPLETED)
 

 60. 

A new disease has suddenly appeared and scientists are trying to determine whether the disease agent is a virus or a bacterium. They collect the following information:

1.      The disease can be transmitted through the air.
2.      The disease agent is too small to be seen under a light microscope.
3.      There are no known antibiotics that are effective against the disease.
4.      The genetic material of the disease agent is DNA.
5.      The disease agent cannot be cultured using any known culture medium.

Is the disease agent most likely a bacterium or a virus? Explain your answer. Write your answer in the space below.
 



 
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